• Adverse Childhood Experiences Study

    This study is one of the largest investigations ever conducted to assess associations between childhood maltreatment and later-life health and well-being. Read More
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Costs of Ignoring Child Maltreatment

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Scientists are beginning to see the evidence of altered brain functioning as a result of early abuse and neglect. Growth in each region of a baby’s brain largely depends on receiving stimulation which spurs activity in that region. This stimulation forms the foundation for learning.1

Researchers use the term plasticity to describe the way the brain creates, strengthens, and discards synapses and neuronal pathways in response to the environment. The brain’s plasticity is the reason that environment plays a vital role in brain development.

The ability to adapt to our environment is a part of normal development. All children need stimulation and nurturance for healthy development. If these are lacking – if a child’s caretakers are indifferent or hostile – the child’s brain development may be impaired. Because the brain adapts to its environment, it will adapt to a negative environment just as readily as it will adapt to a positive environment.

Children who experience the stress of physical or sexual abuse will focus their brains’ resources on survival and responding to threats in their environment. Because the brain ultimately controls all bodily functions, the overwhelming stress of maltreatment experiences in childhood is associated with alterations of biological stress systems and with adverse influences on brain development. Studies have shown that many infants and children who have been maltreated have abnormal secretions of cortisol, indicating that their bodies’ responses to stress have been impaired.

The effects of abuse and neglect on the developing brain during children’s first few years can result in various mental health problems. For example:

  • Diminished growth in the left hemisphere may increase the risk for depression.
  • Irritability in the limbic system can set the stage for the emergence of panic disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD).
  • Smaller growth in the hippocampus and limbic abnormalities can increase the risk of dissociative disorders and memory impairments.
  • Impairment in the connection between the two brain hemispheres has been linked to symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
  • Severely neglected children who have been deprived of sensory stimulation – including touch, movement, and sound – may be at risk for Sensory Integration Disorder.
  • Children who have been raised in environments that totally disregarded their needs for comfort, stimulation, and affection may be at risk for attachment disorders.

This research continues to demonstrate the serious, long-term consequences of abuse and neglect on brain development, and subsequent physical, cognitive, emotional, and social growth.



1 “Understanding the Effects of Maltreatment on Early Brain Development,” National Clearinghouse on Child Abuse and Neglect Information (HHS), 2001.

Child Abuse: The Effects and Impact

  • Putting Isolation on Ice +

    “I’m all alone and nobody understands me or what I’m going through.”  As an adult survivor of child abuse and Read More
  • Adult Survivors' Attachment Styles +

    Children are born with needs and feelings. Infants develop internal models from day one as to how they feel about Read More
  • Effects of Maltreatment on Brain Development +

    Scientists are beginning to see evidence of altered brain functioning as a result of early abuse and neglect. Read More
  • Long Term Effects of Abuse +

    Some common effects that adult survivors must deal with as a result of their abuse. Read More
  • Sibling Incest +

    One of the deepest held secrets in families is siblings incest. It is not as uncommon as you might think. Read More
  • Invalidation as A Form of Abuse +

    Telling children to "do as I say" may work temporarily when you're frustrated, but what does it really teach them. Read More
  • Child Sexual Abuse Accommodation Syndrome +

    A theory developed by Dr. Summit that helps to explain how children interpret their abuse and cope with it. Read More
  • Cycle of Child Abuse Trauma +

    Diane Champé explains her theory about how traumatic reactions from childhood abuse become pervasive into adult functioning, often times without Read More
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Theories of Child Abuse

  • Social Learning Theory +

    According to this theory, behavior is learned through two methods: We either learn by being rewarded for our actions (instrumental Read More
  • Attachment Theory +

    Attachment theorists believe humans develop behaviors as a result of how their caregivers nurture them. According to attachment theory, the Read More
  • Ecological Theory +

    Ecological theory holds that abuse and neglect result from multiple factors. These are divided into four systems: individual, family, community, Read More
  • Family Systems Theory +

    This theory is similar to ecological theory in that both focus on the entire family unit when assessing the needs Read More
  • Self-Efficacy Theory +

    This theory focuses on how personal characteristics of the child, and especially the parent, influences family functioning. Self-efficacy theory addresses Read More
  • Resilience Theory +

    Historically, child abuse and neglect research and interventions were grounded in the belief that inevitably the victim is damaged by Read More
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