This theory focuses on how personal characteristics of the child, and especially the parent, influences family functioning. Self-efficacy theory addresses how a parent’s expectations of effectiveness impact their motivation and behavior. An individual’s expectations dictate if they will start and continue actions to achieve a goal. This theory may help bridge a gap between knowledge and behavior. A gap between knowledge and behavior is apparent when parents know they should not hit their children, but are unable to seek out methods to achieve this goal. Self-efficacy theory states that this knowledge/behavior gap is due to the parents’ belief that they cannot behave in a manner that would stop them from abusing their children. Self-efficacy theory is limited because it does not incorporate a developmental perspective.