Ecological theory holds that abuse and neglect result from multiple factors. These are divided into four systems: individual, family, community, and culture. For individuals and families involved in child abuse and neglect, the degree of influence by each of these four systems may differ dramatically. A child who has been sexually abused may be committed to school, involved with peers but dissociated from the family. In another family, a sexually abused child may be disconnected from the community and isolated from peers. If child maltreatment is the result of multiple factors from various systems, then in order to be effective, programs need to address each factor and system.